Work: - co-founder [S!MPL] Environmental Psychology and Architecture 2010 - projectmanager The Hague ArchiGuides, 2010 - teacher at Faculty of Architecture TU Delft, 2010 - office www.pauldevries.eu, 2010 - researcher at researchlab Vrijstaat | Atelier Rijksbouwmeester, 2010 - project manager and architect at A&i architecten, 2008-2009
- architecture guide at Rotterdam ArchiGuides, 2007-2008 - student tutor first year students Facuty of Architecture TU Delft, 2007 - student tutor first year students Facuty of Architecture TU Delft, 2005 - internship Menhir architects ; Amsterdam 2005 - student tutor first year students Facuty of Architecture TU Delft, 2004 - photographer digital catalogue government buildings for VROM/Government Buildings Agency 2003. - part-time builder of sand sculptures Sand Academy Zoetermeer, 2002. - ski teacher de Uithof, started in 2001
Study: - Environmental Psychology University of Amsterdam 2010 - Architecture TU Delft obtained April 2008. - half year study at Budapest University (BME) 2006. - VWO (pre-university education) obtained 2000.
Committee member: - architecture student organization Argus 2004/2005. - engineer association KIvI-Bouw 2004. - Stylos Stichting 2003-2005 - chairman study association D.B.S.G. Stylos 2003/2004. - chairman pavilion committee D.B.S.G. Stylos 2002/2003. - excursion committee D.B.S.G. Stylos 2001/2002. - 1e year committee D.B.S.G. Stylos 2000/2001.
Workshops (and conferences): - tutor at INDESEM (international design seminar) 2009 - international conference ”The future of lieux de mémoire” Memorial Center Camp Westerbork, 2007 - “Mapping the Unseen” in Delft and in Istanbul, 2007 - “experience workshop” with Explorelab at NAI (Netherlands Architecture Institute), as organiser, Rotterdam 2007 - “City along the spine” workshop and symposium; as organiser; Sarajevo November 2006. - EASA (European Architecture Students Assembly); Tutor “Szimpla Kert” workshop; Budapest July 2006. - Terraventure “Social Topography Tokyo”; Japan November 2005 - EASA (European Architecture Students Assembly); Switzerland 2005 - summer school “House in the age of transition”, Macedonia July 2005 - “Binckhorst”; Art and Architectural Event; The Hague June 2005 - “The flood” housing in the future; Delft may 2005 - "Housing in the Future" in Sarajevo; November 2004 (price winner). - EASA (European Architecture Students Assembly); France 2004. - INDESEM (international design seminar) 2003 (2e price).
Study trips: - Siberia and St.Petersburg (one of the organizers) 2004. - Lille 2004. - Ruhr area Germany 2003. - Antwerp/Brussels 2003. - Berlin/Finland/Stockholm 2003. - Berlin 2003. - Frankfurt/Budapest/Viena/Prague (one of the organizers) 2002. - Barcelona 2002. - London (one of the organizers) 2001. - Ruhr area Germany 2001. - London 2000.
Together with Simon Droog I started a blog called Experiencing Architecture, which is a Guide to a Built environment focussed on Concerns of the
We think a different approach to architecture and urbanism is needed. Architects seem to have lost their way – they focus too much on appearance, fame and glory. The problems in urbanism are more complex, but in general there is not enough attention to the need for well designed public spaces. We need to find our way back to architecture and urbanism that is dedicated to the people that have to live in it.
We want to explore possibilities to
produce a better built environment – environment that will enhance the
quality of life instead of damaging it.
Hereyou can find the research thesis "emotion in architecture" which I made together with Simon Droog within Explorelab of the Faculty of Architecture TU Delft (this thesis formed the basis of my design"dwelling for people").
Below the text which is published in the magazine Volume about our research because of the workshop indesem 2009:
How to design atmospheres attuned to the concerns of the user?
”There was a time when I experienced architecture without thinking about it. Sometimes I can almost feel a particular door handle in my hand, a piece of metal shaped like the back of a spoon. I used to take hold of it when I went into my aunt’s garden. That door handle still seems to me like a special sign of entry into a world of different moods and smells. I remember the sound of the gravel under my feet, the soft gleam of the waxed oak staircase, I can hear the heavy front door closing behind me as I walk along the dark corridor and enter the kitchen, the only really brightly lit room in the house. [...] Memories like these contain the deepest architectural experience that I know. They are the reservoirs of the architectural atmospheres and images which I explore in my work as an architect.”
- ZUMTHOR, P. (2005) Thinking Architecture
Architecture can move us, it elicits different emotions. It can bring back memories, but it can also elicit direct emotions, like letting you feel small or big, or giving a safe feeling or an unsafe one. Architecture is sometimes even able to bring us in a spiritual mood. But the same space can make someone feel calm while another person might feel uncomfortable or even unsafe there. Yet most of us feel small in a big Gothic church and unsafe in a dark alley at night. Architectural spaces have certain atmospheres which influence the emotional state of a person: the interaction between the environment and its occupant.
A different approach During our studies at the Faculty of Architecture at TU Delft, we have noticed that there has been hardly any research in the area of emotion in architecture. Even in our education it is rarely a topic of discussion. The lack of attention for this topic led us to graduation lab Explorelab, where we had the opportunity to explore our fascination: experiencing architecture. In the beginning of our research we discovered that at the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering research has been carried out in this area for almost a decade now. Prof. Paul Hekkert from the Department of Design Aesthetics at the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering confirmed this during one of our regular meetings. In addition to the lack of relevant research, the faculty practises a very functional approach to architecture. We were interested in determining the implications of adopting a less functional approach; an approach where the focus lies on architectural atmospheres attuned to the concerns of the user.
How can architects design atmospheres attuned to the concerns of the user? To answer this question we first need to know what emotions are and how they are elicited. Knowledge of psychology and the extended research which had been done at the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering (TU Delft) into this topic help us to understand how emotions work. This research includes the ‘basic model of emotions’ by Pieter Desmet, which gives insight into the emotional process.2 To be able to use this model, information on architectural concerns and stimuli is needed. This will contribute to the understanding of how emotions are elicited by architecture.
Basic model of emotions The basic model of emotions of Pieter Desmet (fig.1) shows that our concerns are decisive for the kind of emotion that will be elicited. The model describes the eliciting conditions of emotions with the use of three underlying key variables: stimulus, concern and appraisal.
A stimulus elicits an emotion when it is appraised as either harmful or beneficial for one of our concerns. So the same building can elicit different emotions because of different concerns.
However, there are some basic architectural concerns that all humans share, like the need for prospect and refuge, the need to explore and the need for thrill.
Prospect and refuge Traditionally, we prefer to have a shelter on the edge of a forest, because, in the past, man could hunt in the open fields and woman could search for fruits and plants, and, when danger threatened, they could retreat to the shelter protected by the forest. In his book ‘The Experience of landscape’, Jay Appleton refers to the open field as ‘prospect’ and the shelter as ‘the refuge’: “Where he has an unimpeded opportunity to see we can call it a prospect. Where he has an opportunity to hide, a refuge.” To emphasise this, humans have their field of vision to the front (prospect), therefore needing some sort of protection from behind (refuge).
The house ‘Can Feliz’ made by Jørn Utzon to some extent illustrates the prospect to refuge concept. With reference to figure 2, Grant Hildebrand says in his book ‘Origins of Architectural Pleasure’: “Here, on the right, an interior refuge has been developed by opaque walls, a lesser floor-to-ceiling dimension, and a low light level. Continuously on the left, a complementary zone of interior prospect has been created by a somewhat greater floor-to-ceiling dimension, walls with extensive transparent surfaces, and a much higher light level”.
Explore Traditionally again, we need to search for new sources of food and to protect ourselves from possible threats. (see fig. 3)
Thrill Thrill = fear + pleasure Humans need challenges to keep training their skills, or as Veenhoven explains it: “paradise is not liveable”.
Architectural means Light, form, colour, sound, movement, texture and smell, are examples of how architects have created certain atmospheres. These atmospheres are the stimuli in Peter Desmet’s basic model of emotions(fig.1), eliciting an emotion that is appraised as either harmful or beneficial to one of our concerns.
New design process To be able to design atmospheres attuned to the concerns of the user, a new kind of design process is needed. It consists of two main stages with one additional preliminary stage that only needs to be carried out once. First, we require some general knowledge of the basic concerns to gain insight into those fundamental concerns that are related to architecture. Then, more specific concerns need to be unravelled. This can be done by interviewing potential users and observing how reference projects are used. This step has to be repeated for each project, because each has different users with different concerns. For example, the concerns of users of a meditation centre are very different from those of users of a dwelling project. But even between two different dwelling projects there are users with varying concerns.
These concerns need to be satisfied by architectural atmospheres, which themselves can be created by architectural means and thus satisfy the concerns of the user. This stage where the architectural atmospheres are created, is the actual design part of the process.
Finally, the designed architectural atmospheres need to be checked against the basic and specific concerns of the user. To that end, potential users can be shown the design and asked for their feedback. This feedback should then be taken up in the design. This cycle can be repeated until both the architect and the potential user are satisfied.
In conclusion, we believe that a different approach to architecture is needed, primarily in view of the functional way in which architecture is practised at the Faculty of Architecture (TU Delft). Most projects at our former faculty are based on a very conceptual approach: a design method that has often little to do with users’ concerns.
This, or a similar design process has enabled us and a few other architects to create architectural atmospheres attuned to the concerns of the user. Hopefully more architects will adopt this method of designing.
For more information or questions please visit our websites: - www.simondroog.nl - www.pauldevries.eu
multifunctional building Wijkknooppunt Daalmeer; Alkmaar; The Netherlands status: under construction
This building should vitalize the neighborhood and bring the people together, it contains: - school - library - neighborhood center - offices - daycare - barbershop - parking garage - elderly homes - dwellings
I worked on this project as project manager for A&i architecten
Urban study Amsterdam South East (A&i architecten)
An urban study involving a few multifunctional building blocks, where various functions reinforce each other, with special interest in an optimal use of the potentials of this socially and culturally divers neighborhood.
the study is written in dutch here you can find some of the published pages.
I worked on this study during my work at A&i architecten.
“We hebben een prachtig uitzicht vanuit onze woning op de stad met zijn grote aantal voorzieningen en tegelijkertijd kijken wij ook uit op onze prachtige rustgevende (binnen)tuin waar we onze kinderen kunnen zien spelen.”
Speel & ontdek, Je leefomgeving groeit met je mee Leer & geniet, Je ouders in de buurt En voel je thuis, In je eigen speeltuin
Het is algemeen bekend dat ouders de stad uittrekken om hun kinderen een prettige leefomgeving te bieden. In de stad is deze omgeving namelijk nog moeilijk te vinden, terwijl kleinschalige kindvriendelijke buurten vaak in dorpen of stedelijke buitenwijken wel voldoende aanwezig zijn. Een kindvriendelijke leefomgeving is een plek waar kinderen veilig kunnen spelen in een beschermde groene omgeving met mogelijkheden om de buurt verkennen. De omgeving biedt ook mogelijkheden voor ouders om een oogje in het zijl te houden. Het is belangrijk voor kinderen dat ze hun leefomgeving geleidelijk uit kunnen breiden. In huidige stedelijke woningbouw met hoge dichtheid (zoals flats en woontorens) is dit vaak nog niet mogelijk.
project team: Simon Droog Paul de Vries renderings: Dario Kristic
How to design atmospheres attuned to the concerns of the user?
Together with Simon Droog I did a research with the topic: “emotion in architecture”. At our faculty, the Faculty of Architecture at TU Delft, there has hardly been any research in the area of emotion in architecture. At the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, there has been research in this area for almost a decade now. This research includes the ‘basic model of emotions’ by Pieter Desmet (figure 1), which gives insight into the emotional process. This model shows that our concerns are decisive what kind of emotion will be elicited. In our research we described the basic concerns in architecture, like: the need for a shelter, the need for prospect and refuge and the need to explore.
For my design I needed to unravel the specific concerns of the potential users. By visiting 5 family homes and interviewing its inhabitants I unraveled a list of concerns.
With the obtained knowledge I wanted to design a ’good family living enviroment’ on a place where there is not a ‘good family living enviroment’. I choose for Rotterdam centre, because the government of Rotterdam want more people to live in its city centre, but there is no diversity in dwellings. There are only dwelling towers, which are not suitable for families (children can’t expand their realm). The roof of department store “de Bijenkorf“ gives the possibility of a “new ground floor” with prospect, where people can retreat from the busy city centre and is big and strong enough to create a two story high, phased living environment.
for short movie click here and with dutch spoken explanation click here for presentation slides click here for only maquette pictures click here
During my half year study at Budapest University of Technology and
Economics (BME) I have done a research on courtyard buildings of the
city center of Budapest in cooperation with the National Office of
Cultural Heritage (KÖH). The research was the basis of my design
project "public home".
offered plan is a ground floor plan of an austro-hungarian, one floor
courtyard building, the one where is bar Szimpla Kert placed at the
moment (Kazinczy u.14 VII district 1075 Budapest). Used as an example
that these half demolished old buildings can still be alive and offer a
great potential; often it is as simple as that, if we consider things
on a larger scale, that the renovation instead of destruction in this
case becomes an investment for a present and for the future as well.
the first floor is now successfully used by the bar Szimpla Kert. My
design task for “complex 1” was to optimize the use of the building, so
it has a bigger change to survive. The concept of this design is to
create a “public home” a place where you have all the functions of a
home. If you are not able to do certain things at home, you can come to
this place. For example: playing music, doing your laundry, watching a
movie, meditating, paint, repairing your bike, having a meeting,
sleeping, have a drink while surfing the internet and so on. It should
become a place where the community comes together.
1st floor/ groundfloor: The
concept of the austro-hungerian buildings was based on the public and
private areas, where the street level is occupied with the public
facilities and upper floors were planned for housing. This organization
of public and privat is kind of kept within the proposed design. Due to
this, we find on this level the now existing bar reinforced with
certain functions that can insure constant flow of people during the
day, like bike rent, shops and gallery. The main intervention though,
is the interpolation of the glass house, placed on the ruined building
wing, at the moment functioning as a open bar but only during the
summer time. With the glass house, more options are open for the space
itself and for the different utilities. But the basic line is that the
glass house becomes the heart of the new concept, gathering all the
other functions within the building, but making them special because it
introduces the spark of nature inside the urban scheme. It has its own
structure that can open while summer time and close when cold
2nd floor: On
this level I have added a new part with its own staircase, the
exhibition space. This is made in a steel and glass structure which
makes a contrast with the old part. In the old part are the
following “semi public” functions: office, silent room (for
meditation), creative room, music room (very good isolated), showers
and toilets (for the hostel guest), storage, a washing area combined
with a small library. I called the functions “semi public” because most
of the rooms are still public but are with certain tone of intimacy.
3rd floor: The
new added part continues on this floor level with room for ateliers.
These ateliers have a glass roof witch is orientated to the north. The
space under the roof of the old part was not used, but it is big enough
to accommodate 41 sleeping places for the hostel. A few windows have
to be made in the roof, the staircase has to be continued, the roof has
to be isolated, next to the adding of walls and plumbing. ________________________________________________________________ Each city existing as a live structure or as a memory, is defined with a birthmark, people who live and create within its frames, or it is defined with so many utterly different signs, but all the same unique for the city. Sometimes, as in case of Budapest, its own body language creates the heart-beat of the city. Referred to body language as a austro-hungarian divine villas that form the city veins, traces and life its self.
When looking at the Budapest map this existing structure becomes recognisable, and if we search deeper into it, becomes clear that there are small cells of life inside the city beat, already formed with buildings and closed blocks. It is necessary to recognise importance of these life cells, meaning courtyards, which are created in the past, long gone moment in history, but still existing as an ultimate witness of city birth, its battles, hopes, generations of life that circulated through them and left traces for us to find. As we live in a moment of fast systems who tend to create global images in the world, to build 'unisex', or better to say ' uni historical' products that don't have any real potential of becoming rich with history and precious as one unique art image of the city, as courtyard buildings do, we are obliged to recognise the danger of modern trend : build as fast as you can demolish. In the case of Budapest demolishing means erasing the living cells in the city, killing the recognisable image we have for no other place in the world but here, and then building on their graveyards. Subculture itself derives from the urge to express. Art is a revolutionary weapon that allows us to give meaning to choices we make in life we live, but first of all it is a need! In this case courtyard becomes a mean of expression. It becomes a statement and a shelter from overtaking mass production. Its potential is recognised in the symbiosis of past and present, working for the future. Courtyard itself came to life with an old face looking upon new generation and a stronger heart beat.
Szimpla kert is a clear example of a life spark in almost forgotten place. This is a small courtyard formed out of the one floor buildings which puts it into extreme danger : popular wave of new giants can destroy it in a moment. Such courtyards are easy target, but their importance grows even stronger. Do we have a choice? There is always a choice, specially if we are reminded that respecting history means respecting ourselves. ______________________________________________________________
click for more images the image above. description at the moment only available in Dutch
Tijdelijk vakantie huis Bill Viola
De gebeurtenis van het allerdaagse en de confrontaties in het werk van Bill Viola zijn belangrijke uitgangspunten voor mijn ontwerp. De comfortabele vakantie woning, die grotendeels is afgesloten van het openbare leven, moet een plek worden waar de allerdaagse dingen van het leven centraal staan. In mijn ontwerp zijn er 4 duidelijk afzonderlijke ruimtes met specifieke functies. Een ruimte om in te reinigen, één om in te slapen, één om eten te bereiden en één om in te wonen. De ruimtes zijn identiek, zodat de nadruk ligt op de functie specifieke objecten in de ruimte, zoals een wasbak of een bed. Om nog meer nadruk te leggen op deze objecten veranderen de identieke ruimtes van schaal, dus de verhoudingen blijven hetzelfde. Hierdoor komen in een aantal ruimtes de objecten in het gedrang en in andere ruimtes staan ze helemaal los in de ruimte. Beide extreme zorgen voor de nadruk op de objecten of terwijl op de functie van de ruimte. Zeker omdat juist de ruimtes die normaal klein nu groot zijn en andersom, je zou dit “contra-functioneel” kunnen noemen. De badkamer is heel groot en de woonkamer juist heel klein.
Door de ruimtes ‘psychologische ver’ uit elkaar te leggen maak je de bewoner nog bewuster van zijn bezigheden. Door een directe confrontatie tussen deze specifieke ruimtes en met haar omgeving moet de bewoner zich bewust blijven van de fysische wereld. Door zoveel mogelijk perceptieveranderingen lijkt de afstand groter te worden tussen verschillende ruimtes (zie schets).
Door de ruimtes visueel met elkaar en de buitenwereld te verbinden door het gebruik van zeer transparante ramen zonder kozijn kan de bewoner niet geheel opgaan in de bezigheid van de specifieke ruimte, maar blijft hij altijd in contact, bewust of onbewust, met de omgeving.
De rest ruimtes die niet worden gebruikt door de kunstenaar kunnen gebruikt worden voor de boer van de boomgaard om zijn appels in op te slaan en voor regenwateropslag. Op het moment dat de woning helemaal niet meer bewoont wordt kunnen alle ruimtes gebruikt worden voor opslag.
workshop the flood 2005 (TU Delft - University of Sarajevo)
PROBLEM: CLIMATE CHANGES AND FLOODS
Lately we have been witnessing dramatic climate changes on the global level. Warming of the atmosphere and increases in temperature extremes are changing the weather seasons as we know them, having immense impacts on the environment. One of the evident changes is the rise of sea level, and more abrupt changes in water regime of rivers and lakes. One of the most disastrous consequences of this trend are massive floods in low lands. And one of the countries that might face this problem first is - Holland. Living and building at and below zero-height, the Dutch have developed systems of dikes that keep river and sea water out and waterlocks that control water-regime during different seasons. However, with the global climate changes, one of the problems facing Holland is the cost of heightening the dikes, and strengthening waterlocks.
SITE OF KAMPEN TOWN, NORTHERN HOLLAND
In our assignment we looked at the area of Kampen; a town at the north of Holland, situated at the debouchment of river IJsel into the IJsel Lake. The town has preserved its medieval historical core while the surroundings are developed into farming and agricultural lands. Its population is still a strong community, traditional and conservative in ways, so that it is even unusual to find open shops on Sunday. In the old days, the town used to be fortified and surrounded by a single dike. Nowadays, the water of lake and river IJsel is kept out by a double system of dikes around it. The farms are raised on small artificial hills - called terps.
In near future, it may be necessary to rethink this system of protection from water. If the level of Lake rises by 1 meter in the next 50 years, as expected, and 3 meters if the waves are accounted for as well - heightening the dikes and strengthening waterlocks could become a practice too expensive to maintain.
In the assignment we tried to look for a solution to this problem in which we could take in the occasional or permanent flood in the land and create our structures in a way that will function in this changed environment.
APPROACH: TAKING THE WATER IN
We addressed the problem by letting the water flow freely trough a part of land limited by dikes and adapting the architecture to the changing level of water as a given condition. Residential, public and commercial structures and infrastructures should function - when the area floods (in case of Kampen by a meter at most), - when it is dry (in case of Kampen - in summer only) and - while it is a marsh.
URBAN PLANING + BUILDING TYPOLOGY = SOLUTION:
The way we dealt with this issue was to leave the ground-level free for water-passage and elevate all structure above. Thus we would physically separate the built from the natural layer. At the same time we want to keep them close, visually connected and accessible at will. The natural layer must be visible to be enjoyed and to be supervised. The size of voids underneath the structure should be minimized in order to prevent unwanted things, people or creatures sheltering there and to eliminate the fear of the inaccessible/unsupervised side. Because of this, we must look into structures small in scale and dispersed in plan. They will be organized in a network along tertiary and secondary roads, leaving big spaces for lakes/marshes/nature in between. Transversal roads will be plugged in the urban matrix of the old town as the extensions of existing streets. To connect they will bridge over the existing road on a dike. They will be connected longitudinally by a main road that serves as a backbone connection trough the newly developed area. It will connect to the existing road to Kampen (on the dike) at the point closest to the railway station.
This juncture-point takes on a special form. Because of the terrain configuration, the way we are letting the water go trough the area is limited by dikes surrounding Kampen old town (north) and the dike that the railway will be on (south). These two dikes come close and form a water-passage near proposed Kampen road-railway juncture. We will connect our main road at the same point and raise the whole structure on poles, bridging over the waterway. The bridge will become a new entrance to Kampen, a major juncture and a focus of new roads and new events. Because of that we propose that it is built into a commercial mega structure, called The Sunday Shopping Bridge.
1° For the first housing typology -we took the model of traditional Dutch residential neighborhood and raised it above the ground, supported by poles. Residential, public and commercial structures as well as all infrastructures can stand on poles, allowing for water level to change without affecting it negatively. The front garden and the back yard remain on the ground level, planted or flooded, depending on the season. Ground level can be accessed by the stairs reaching either the garden, the boat or agricultural land. Also -storage or summer rooms can be built below the entrance level and used in summer only or specially insulated to keep the water out.
These housing units are aligned by tertiary roads, each accessed by the bridge over the front garden. They can also be clustered with a common courtyard-platform in front and back and accessed by one or two bridges. The clusters connect via bridges to transversal roads. The pattern is dispersed, rural in character, and makes peaceful neighborhoods surrounded by nature.
2°To make use of raised infrastructure of the main road, we proposed combining the highway with buildings, as a second housing typology. We propose that it is built like a mega structure on several levels, some of which can accommodate storage, garage, or commercial space, while residential and public spaces are attached on both sides as a part of the same mega-structure. Series of galleries and pedestrian pathways are supposed to run along the road between the buildings.
Evelien Pieters, Jusuf Zilić , Dino Eminagić and Paul de Vries